Yes, you can. However, the real consideration is what to do with the catalogs after you do some editing on either copy.
Remember, you need not only the catalog, but the images themselves, so you need to copy all 15,000 images, and then inform the Surface Pro version of Lightroom where these photos are located (on the surface pro). This can get tedious, and must be repeated whenever new images are added. If you make edits, you will want those edits to be sync'd to your main Lightroom database.
Rather than simply copy everything over to your Surface pro, a better solution is to use the 'Export as Catalog" function of Lightroom. In this case, you would select all your photos, and choose the option 'Build/Include Smart Previews", which will include preview images that you can use to conduct edits, without actually including the photos themselves. Then, from your main machine, have it create this catalog. You then move this catalog to your Surface Pro, and open it from the Lightroom installed there. No need to move the images, as the Smart Previews will allow you to edit with the preview.
When you wish to consolidate your Surface Pro edits or any new photos you have added to the Surface Pro Lightroom, you simply select those new/edited images and 'Export as Catalog". Copy this catalog to a thumbdrive, or to your NAS, and them on the main computer, select 'Import from Another Catalog', which will copy your edits and move any new images to your image store location.