Does anyone know the name of this effect? Or how I could reproduce it? I can use Adobe Photoshop CC.
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tillinberlin comented this is solarization and he is basicly right in some degree, but if you use it on a positive image you get the wrong result:
So, you can use a negative image or use the curves the inverse way solarization works.
You can see the objetive of this step in the hair.
After this you could use a gradient map.
That would be a starting point. Play with it, play with layers, mask here, burn and dodge on other places.
AFAIK this effect is called Solarisation (or solarization) and it's a phenomenon known already in analogue photography where parts of the image are wholly or partially reversed in tone.
You could probably do some further search on the original phenomenon and try to reverse-engeneer it with the help of layers and transparency and the like.. There is also lot's of how-tos and video tutorials on this – shouldn't be too difficult to get it done in whatever photoshop version.
See also: the wikipedia page about Solarisation.
My guess is that this was originally a scanned colour negative. I can achieve a very similar colour shift and 'surreal' contrast by scanning any colour neg and simply not applying colour correction as you would normally do. The rest of the effect appears (backlighting, harsh contrast) to be 'in camera', so to speak.