I am a student working on a construction method for under sampled images. I am looking for a group of text books, papers, or web sites that would give me further understanding on how digital cameras apply gain before a raw image is output. More specifically is the Max and Min number of photons collected on the set of sensors used to define a Gain factor and how does this affect the dynamic range. My current concerns are that these max and min values are used causing an issue with under sampled data as a max or min value might not have been sensed. Any references would be greatly appreciated in furthering my understanding of what current day recreational digital cameras are doing before outputting a lossless image format.


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    This would probably be better asked at physics.stackexchange.com – Michael C Mar 28 '15 at 8:16

My understanding is that gain is set by your ISO setting on the camera. Base gain is at the lowest ISO, and amplifier gain is turned up as ISO is turned up. Amplifier noise gets added as well. On some sensors these amplifiers are on the sensor chip itself providing the best possible noise performance (recent sony chips). It's more common for the amps to be off the sensor chip. Higher gain equals lower dynamic range because the number of total photons captured by a single well is always lower than max (otherwise why turn up the gain)?

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