Can this camera set the aperture with modern EF lenses, or do I have to get lenses that allow me to set the aperture with a ring on the lens?
And if anyone knows how this camera compares to the EOS Rebel S, I'd appreciate some info.
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Since the camera is in the EOS line it is compatible with newer lenses just like new DSLR:s. When I use my EOS-1V (the successor to the EOS-1N) I almost cant even tell the difference from the EOS-1Ds bodies except from a slightly different grip. The only body using EF-lenses that has limited lens controlling capabilities in the line is the EF-M and therefore it lacked the EOS designation.
Regarding the use of an aperture ring, those where abandoned with the FD/FDn system when Canon released the EOS (Electro-Optical System) line and none of the lenses in the new line has a manual aperture ring.
The EOS-1N is a film EOS camera in the professional range and the low-end EOS Rebel S can't really compare to it in any aspects. For example the EOS-1N features 6 frames/second compared to the 1 frame/second of the EOS Rebel S, the build quality is significantly better, the auto focus system is a lot better, the fastest shutter speed is a lot faster and so on. However you can get a hold on the low end canon film cameras for almost nothing, while the EOS-1 line is a lot more expensive (still a steal given what you actually get in my opinion).
It seems like you are thinking about getting either a 1N or Rebel S.
The 1N is a fine camera, however, take the EOS 3 into consideration as well. While having a higher number and therefore being "lower end" it is in some ways even better than the 1N sharing features with the 1V. I own and love both cameras (1N and 3).
I assume your goal is to get an old (and therefore cheap) top of the line Canon film camera. Take a look at this chart that provides a comparison of 1, 1N, 3 and 1V: http://photonotes.org/reviews/1-1n-3-1v/