This addresses speed / focal length aspects only and does not address issues wrt specific lenses.
Overlaps with what others have said.
As others have noted - antishake / stabilisation only helps to compensate for camera motion - not subject motion.
Traditional rule of thumb is minimum shutter speed is
1/s = mm
ie 1/50s at 50mm, 1/250s at 250mm etc
This is modified in the real world by various factors - here shown as K_xxx
CF = crop factor makes things worse as lense is effecively "longer" by a factor of CF.
Other factors MAY make things better (ie longer allowed shutter speeds).
- Min speed in 1/s ~~~~= mm x CF / K_is / K_you / K_luck.
In "the real world" an experienced photographer with an unstabilised system and no external bracing can usually better the rule of thumb by a factor of 2, getting marginal at a factor of 4, lower happens - see Kyou below.
Any sort of bracing against an external solid support helps.
(Monopods are said to help but don't seem to help me overly much unless used as part of a body triangle.)
CF = crop factor (about 1.5 for most APSC systems)
Converts focal length to "35mm equivalent".
If focal length is expressed in 35mm equivalent (as on some point & shoot cameras) then this factor has already been allowed for.
K_is is anti-shake / image-stabilisation system gain.
4+ usually (2 stops)
8 if lucky (3 stops)
16 if you believe the marketing department's blurb.
K_you is based on your experience, skill and Ninja breathing abilities.
1 is safe,
0.25 can happen,
2 is not unusual,
4 is grand master if consistent.
Larger has been known to happen.
Helps to wedge camera against a post, brace 2 legs and body against something solid etc.
Holding breath around moment of shutter release helps - many recommend exhaling. I find inhale and hold better for long delays (when will it fly ...?) as Oxygen in lungs can prove useful.
I'm told that slowing your heartbeat rate helps, but it's not something I've mastered :-).
K_luck is a happenstance factor and can be amazingly large - and may not be.
I sometimes find that photos taken in the 0.1s - 1s shutter speed range, while not actually "sharp" are acceptably usable, when this is not really expected. Other times they are a blurred mess. It's hard to be sure what factors apply here but lack of subject movement and the ability to keep what movements do happen inside a small range no doubt help. An IS mechanism can help over long periods exceeding the normal claims if the total motion range is inside its mechanical motion limits.
Moving objects make this worse quite apart from the direct effect of their motion.
Panning can help and may not.