As near as I can tell, "tactile photography" is a very, very limited artistic style with only a couple of instances of it being used. In it, a photograph is printed on a raised relief surface so that a blind person could feel the image.
What you need to be able to do it depends on how you want to go about it. At a minimum, you would need a method of printing that could produce raised or 3d prints, which would not be simple. You could either generate depth by looking at edge sharpness (similar to how emboss filters work) or you could actually take stereoscopic imagery and derive a depth map from them.
The real trick is the printing no matter what way you approach it and the way you process the images would be entirely dependent on the way you print in a form supporting depth.