You can work around most equipment limitations, it won't be as reliable and easy to use as the "official" solution but it can be made to work.
For example, if you want the "classic" wide angle landscape shot you can do a panorama (just remember to set manual mode, manual focus and manual white balance)
If you want to shoot macro you can reverse your lens - just take the lens off the camera and hold it reversed with the front element touching the lens mount of the camera, you then get focus by moving the camera slowly backward and forward.
You may have to change camera settings to let it take pictures without a lens, to get more in focus you need to stop down the lens, on Canon cameras you do this by connecting the lens, switching to Av mode, setting the aperture, pressing the DOF preview button (on the bottom right of the lens mount) and then, with the button pressed detaching the lens - it will then remain stopped down
You already have all you need to take portraits, to control the light you can build DIY reflectors out of thing you would normally throw in the garbage like Richard Smith suggested.
If you can spend a little money you can get cheap Chinese flashes on eBay for around $40 for manual models or $80 for TTL models, you can also often get work lights from local hardware/electricity/lighting stores for cheap.
If you get cheap lights use them with DIY modifiers (reflectors, softboxes, grids, snoots are all easy to make from leftover packing material).
And just try things, if you don't succeed you can always come back here with a more specific question.