From the two photos you shared, I can claim that you are interested in macro photography.
Macro gives you the opportunity to take a photo of an object far closer than a close up. There are some subclasses, such as the already mentioned here. But in general the main category is macro. Macro can achieved with macro lenses, like Canon 100mm 2.8. Don't confuse macro with close-up: a true macro photo has magnification at least 1:1.
However, for super macro you can use lenses, like Canon MP-E 65mm 2.8, in case you want to get even closer. The particular lens has magnification up to 5:1.
The 1:1 means that it is a true representation of what you are photographing, not a magnification of lets say 5 times bigger than the object really is, comparing always the image sensor with the object. For more details on magnification, I would suggest you reading here: http://www.dpreview.com/articles/6519974919/macro-photography-understanding-magnification
Not to confuse you, there is a debate about if a true macro is 1:1 only or 1:1 and more. Some say that macro is only 1:1, others than it is 1:1 and more, like 2:1. But don't let this confuse you any further.
Just keep in mind that with a true macro lens you must have magnification 1:1 and not less than this.
There are several sites/books, focused on macro photography, which involve specific techniques and photos you can be inspired by.
Hope that helps!