I'm having an issue with tiff files that I can't figure out. Here's an example: I open a 40 mb tiff, add one curves adjustment layer, and save the file normally (i.e., using LZW, Interleaved, IBM PC, and RLE). My file balloons when saved to 133 mb (not flattened). Again, it's a simple tiff with no previous editing and the curves adjustment layer is the only change (no resizing, nothing). Meanwhile, the onscreen Document size remains at 40/40.If I delete the single adjustment layer the file size drops to 40 mb. Why is the adjustment layer causing the file to so dramatically increase in size? Any ideas? Thanks!
The comments have really answered the question here: The behaviour you're seeing is as you should expect.
The settings for adjustment layers alone have no equivalence in any of the TIFF content standards. TIFF does allow for vendor specific extensions and this would be an example of one but saving to a nonstandard TIFF would be pointless if nobody could open it without an Adobe application. In order to remain compatible you have to add to your source image the resulting images of the adjustment layer changes alone, the source image with changes applied and the mask. Even using PSD if you enable the compatibility options it may do something similar to the file size (I didn't check).
Given that TIFF tries to be all things to all graphics formats right from group 3 fax through to high bit depth rendering and multiple layers there is always going to be a point where following the standard introduces a significant compromise.
In this case file size is that compromise and if it concerns you then you may need to store your content in a more appropriate format such as the native Photoshop format. PSD is unlikely to be going anywhere for quite some time.