Not to my knowledge, at least with Canon 5D Mark III bodies. If they are all the same exact model running the same firmware version it could be theoretically possible to use the SDK to write your own script, but if they are different models then it would be much more difficult since each model often uses different menu structures to accomplish many of the same things.
One option you could do with multiple copies of the Canon EOS 5D Mark III is use the Custom modes, C1, C2, and C3, to set up each camera ahead of time to be identical in each of those three modes. Set up C1 for the ceremony, C2 for the formals, and C3 for the reception. It would change from wedding to wedding as the venue for each segment differed but at least you could have three shooting scenarios covered ahead of time by just the turn of the mode dial.