I would hope that the only files corrupted are those that were being copied; since you don't delete the file from the card until after the file is verified to be written correctly, you can
- repair the file system
- re-copy all the files from the card, including those that are already there, since the old copy may be bad abd the copy-over is OK.
- fix the LR database by restoring from backup and re-importing everything after that.
I think the image file themselves are not a problem; it's the mysterious LR database that is worrisome. Do you need it for anything? I find its imposition of a database to be an unnecessary complication, and I keep the XMP files in the same directory as the image.
That's the point I want to add: the directory with image files and work files should be self contained and usable without strange stuff in other locations. That facilitates backups and moving stuff to archival storage and reading old archives too.