What program would I need or manual adjustments in order to create a photo like this? What is this filter called? I typically use Aperture as my editing program but would be open to using others.
There is no single way to produce an "effect", as there are many ways to produce effects very similar to the one you're referencing. The first step would be to properly expose the photo in order to facilitate the rest of the edits. What I mean by that is the photo has blown out white areas and what could be image noise. In order to create those two effects one would:
As has already been noted, some of the other obvious basic adjustments would be to:
There are also Photoshop actions or presets in other programs, apps that give effects, layers, filters, etc., but this is as close as I can imagine doing it with just Aperture.