Maybe I am not naming the style correctly, but the examples should give an idea of what I mean. Can somebody explain what technique and attributes I need to create photos in the mentioned style?
The style is typified by low-key, dramatic lighting - lots of shadow and contrast, even silhouette.
I would pick a fairly dark setting, and start with side lighting to maximize the contrast on my subject. Would make use of subtractive lighting (e.g. use a flag or black reflector) to further increase contrast. Would use barn doors to keep too much light from spilling.
I would light the background with some form of gobo. For example, I might shine a light through a houseplant or some window blinds, to create patterns on the background. Could experiment doing this with the main light, creating light and shadow patterns on the subject.
A fog machine could be used to add some mood to the scene.
An example of the background I'm talking about:
For the most part, after that, the images tend to be black and white (not always though) with some level of grain in the shot and, maybe, a vignette. It varies a little with the image and there's not really a hard and fast rule, so experiment with your shots. In terms of doing that, though, it depends on your software. I use Photoshop and I have plugins such as Nik's Silver Efex Pro that simplifies the process, but it can be done in other ways as well with Photoshop or GIMP (the grain tutorial I linked to should be do-able in GIMP even though it's a Photoshop tutorial). Ideally, you're able to work with raw images, rather than JPEG, and so have some flexibility in your work.