Are there camera out there that are capable to withstand at least some of the following type of weather conditions and are able to take good quality photos (not necessarily the most high quality photos)?

  1. Hot weather where temperature might hit at least 50 degree Celsius
  2. Underwater condition in a swimming pool (able to take good photo during day / night)
  3. Sandstorms condition
  4. Thunderstorm condition
  5. Earthquake condition
  6. Underwater condition in sea
  7. Able to withstand hard knocks
  8. Snowing condition
  9. During nuclear meltdown or post nuclear conditions
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    Earthquake condition? What exactly are you planning here? – Please Read My Profile Apr 27 '12 at 0:52
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    Now, this would become an interesting question if we included post nuclear war conditions. – rfusca Apr 27 '12 at 1:17
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    What did your friend recommend? – Ward - Reinstate Monica Apr 27 '12 at 6:33
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    @Jack: It seems like you are asking for the kitchen-sink camera. Ultimately, you get what your money buys, and to get everything, you need to spend a lot of money. Your essentially asking for a weather resistant camera, which certainly do exist, but they rarely sell for less than $1000 in DSLR form. There are a few water sealed point-and-shoot cameras that can be used underwater, but they are not guaranteed to work in pretty much "any" condition. They offer your average point-and-shoot quality as well, so certainly not "kitchen sink" level. – jrista Apr 29 '12 at 16:57
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    I believe (though I'm not certain) that the GoPro stuff will do 1-8 quite easily. There are videos all over the internet of GoPros being abused and emerging unscathed. – Chinmay Kanchi Apr 5 '13 at 18:51

Yes, there are cameras that will work in extreme weather — at least on the more realistic side of each situation. There are many ruggedized cameras, almost any of which will cover some degree of each item on your whole list — although none will take being actually hit by lightning. A ruggedized camera can handle going to the beach (although you should be careful to get sand out of any moving parts after), but a sandstorm is a tall order and you would want additional protection, if you're really out in it. Likewise, these will handle snorkeling, but if you're diving down where there is significant pressure, you probably need additional precautions.

For nuclear disaster, assuming your own safety is either adequately dealt with or that you are past caring, no off-the-shelf camera will help. Radiation will fog film and can destroy digital sensors (and flip bits on memory cards). When photographer Igor Kostin illegally went into the Chernobyl site days after the explosion, he wore a lead suit and protected his camera gear with lead boxes — something similar would be recommended were you in a similar situation. Years later, a Chernobyl tour site notes that putting camera equipment on the ground is forbidden as it risks contamination, but doesn't offer further words of warning on protecting camera gear; presumably the tour is short enough and stays far enough away from high radiation areas as to minimize the risk.

For the more realistic scenarios, though, a camera feature search at Digital Photography Review turns up three dozen shockproof cameras, and I believe all of these results happen to be waterproof as well — which also means sealed against dust. You can narrow down the search from there.

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2 and 8 are not significantly different other than the depth potentially involved. Underwater enclosures are made for hundreds of feet of submersion for most popular camera's including DSLRs, but they are not necessarily cheap. For the average DSLR, it will generally run $1500 to $3500 for such an enclosure. Also, special underwater strobes are necessary at depths below about 40 to 50 feet or even 10 feet depending on water conditions.

3, 4 and 8 are all weather proofing concerns. The underwater enclosures from above would likely work, but are also overkill. There are also a variety of cheap (relatively) weatherproofing options available for most professional gear. Top end professional gear will even have some weatherproofing built in, though it is fairly rare to rely on the built in weatherproofing.

5 and 7 are also very similar and is really linked to build quality. The higher the build quality, the more durable the gear will be against shocks. There are also camera's like the GoPro that are designed specifically for taking physical shock abuse.

1 and 9 are the real challenging ones that pretty much require specific design since operating temperatures can't easily be avoided and radiation hardening is a very special case.

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here is a durability test of the canon 7D! most weather sealed camera bodies + lens are capable of handling harsh weather conditions. Of course this does not come cheap. I know that the canon 70/80D are the lowest priced weather sealed canon camera, so anything higher end than this camera (7D,6D,5D,1Dx) are all capable of handling harsh weather conditions pretty well.

Of course, the owner of the camera has to be very responsible to take good care of the camera in order for it to perform to it's absolute best potential.

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Please be aware that bad weather have big impact on photo quality and your comfort. In most cases camera and lens sealing in light rain is a good feature, but if this rains intensify it can produce droplets on lens or filter. Wide lenses are much more affected than telephoto.

Gopro users can record while it is raining because camera is put in sealed case, however droplets disrupt quality of recorded image. So one thing is having proper gear, the other case is if I can have proper quality results in particular conditions.

If you want to take underwater photos water is much "solid" and there is no droplets on lens, so single droplets don't disrupt lights. However I would recommend special cameras for that type of photos or a DSLR case which will be as expensive as a body.

Pentax is a brand which like to put sealing in nearly all DSLRs. K-S2 is probably the smallest sealed DSLR on the market. Other brands puts on more expensive bodies.

TL;DR In most cases invest in sealed camera body and lens. In very light rain you can work even with non sealed lenses. In other cases use special camera suitable for that job: sealed, underwater or lead container :)

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