This photo was accidentally captured by me. Can it be considered to have bokeh? I am confused, because it does not have any foreground in focus.
The Japanese word
Boke (ボケ) or the American spelling
Bokeh, refers to the out of focus areas of a photograph. It does not necessarily mean only the background blur, it refers to foreground blur as well. Bokeh is often used to refer to the quality of out of focus blur more so than its presence. In Japanese, Boke Aji (ボケ味) is used to specifically refer to the quality of bokeh. Aji literally means "flavor", so it would be referring to the kind of bokeh...good or bad, clean or dirty, etc.
Bokeh ranges in quality from poor, where blur circles are rough and polygonal with poor uniformity to very high, where blur circles are smooth and perfectly round, with clean uniformity or a slight spheric grade from center to edge. Circular apertures with rounded diaphragm blades generally create more pleasing bokeh, and a slight amount of spherical aberration in a lens tends to create the most pleasing bokeh.
In your specific shot, you do indeed have bokeh. The quality of your bokeh appears to be lower than one would really look for in a photograph. Its a bit rough and the blur circles are not entirely uniform. Your shot is also only slightly out of focus...you might notice better results if you put it out of focus even more, however without a useful foreground subject...bokeh is largely useless.
It looks to me like bokeh, and nothing but bokeh. I'm actually interested by the little colored lights in the middle. With some cropping, this might become an appealing -- if abstract -- composition.
Every picture has some level of bokeh - as its the quality of the out of focus blur and there's always some out of focus blur since lenses focus a single plane and we live in a 3D world.
This looks like just a totally out of focus picture to me.
Technically, yes, this is bokeh. Bokeh really only refers to the blurring that occurs in the out of focus area of a picture. But I personally wouldn't think of this as bokeh but just an out of focus picture. Most times bokeh is referred to it is always that which is not in focus.
This site has a good discussion on bokeh and why some people think that bokeh is more than just an out of focus area of a picture.
Yes, this is, in fact Bokeh. Bokeh refers to the part of a picture that is out-of-focus. It doesn't matter whether it is in the background or foreground. The picture is very interesting, and with certain adjustments though, could look nice.