Well, I'd generally argue that doing it on camera is preferrable to post-processing primarily because it means you spend less time on the computer and more time behind the camera. However, many can be emulated in software, including graduated ND filters (with multiple exposures), warming, and color correction, the obvious ones that can't you've already mentioned. I'd suggest that some of the special effects ones, such as a starlight, would require some significant work to emulate and so it wouldn't be worth it, you may as well to a render instead of a photograph.
As for your specific question, the UV filter reduces haze and improves contrast which, to a degree, you can accomplish in post processing. However, digital cameras are not as sensitive to UV light as film is, so the need for its effect is little to none with a dSLR. Most common use of the UV filter at this point is lens protection, though the value of that is not completely agreed upon.