It looks like your viewer (FastStone) is not applying the colour management (CM), either because it's not set up to, or because it's doing it incorrectly.
Photoshop (PS) is fairly reliable in terms of CM, so we can use it as a benchmark, but let's rule out some remaining possibilities (considering your PS Color Settings, which are basically correct1):
- You (re)started Photoshop after the monitor profile was installed;
- Color Proof is not enabled (View -> Proof Colors, there should be no tick)2.
Having checked that, and having opened an image with an attached colour profile, we can be reasonably confident that the colours we see in PS are the "right" colours,3 and any visible discrepancies are likely to be the fault of the other application.
Now, every other application, viewers and editors, can have their own colour management settings. They can be as sophisticated as PS's, or as simple as an "enable" tick, or even none. In the latter cases we can only wonder (or read the documentation) how CM actually works in them. You need to review each application you use individually.
It's helpful to understand that conceptually, display of a colour pixel is a two-stage process:
- Decode the image values using the image's colour profile (most commonly sRGB).
- Encode the result for display, using your own individual profile created at calibration (or more precisely, at profiling).
Part or all of this process can be done by the application (e.g. PS, which has, arguably, a better CM engine) and the other part by the operating system (OS). This in part explains the multitude of CM settings in various applications.
In particular, some Windows applications do not make use of the OS display profile (set in your first screenshot). They have their own setting for the display profile, and you need to change it separately every time you re-calibrate your monitor. (This was more common in the past, with older applications).
Some applications mismanage images which have no profile attached (the most reasonable approach is to treat them as sRGB).
Basically, you need to explore every application's CM settings and make them similar to the PS's settings (CM enabled, no proof, display profile set if required, default image profile sRGB, etc.)
Now, you mentioned Premiere. Historically, video had a different colour process and different standards, and many video applications (both players and editors) still lack proper CM support, and even if they do have it, it is rarely enabled by default. (You are supposed to use a monitor that complies with a certain colour standard by itself).
However, recent versions of Premiere Pro do have an option to enable colour management. (I don't have it at hand to show where). It requires hardware support though.
1 I would suggest to tick "Ask When Pasting" as well. You want to know about all colour conversions/mismatches happening. I also wouldn't use dithering, but that's a matter of taste/priorities.
Also, if you are serious about CM, I would advise you against having switchable "daylight" and "night" profiles. It just doesn't work well. Deliberate yellowing at night (if that's what I think it is) just ruins colours instead of helping with anything. After calibration, no settings on the monitor should be changed, even brightness (ideally).
2 Colour proofing is emulation of colours of one device/medium on another. For your task, you don't want it enabled anywhere, including your viewer.
3 Contingent on the monitor (=display+video card) settings remaining intact from the time of calibration.