Typically, finely printed details are created with photo lithography. The source image is created at a larger scale than the final image to reduce the effects of mechanical tolerances. The larger image is then optically reduced to the smaller final size.
In the extreme this is how silicon wafers are turned into semiconductor chips.
For a photographic test chart, the simplest method would be to use film to photograph an oversized original source image, and then to use traditional darkroom printing on a polyester paper to produce the test image at the desired size.
This would allow precision down to the fineness of silver crystals at the photographic and printing steps.
Ordinary computer system printing simply is not designed to that level of accuracy.
The 1200 dpi of a laser printer does not provide 1200 line pairs per inch. It is designed to provide high quality output at a nominal 300 or 600 dpi by filling in the spaces between dots.
Films designed for microfilm work are still available. That would be a good base material for high precision work.
Of course the requirements may be over specified. In that case, it is probably best to empirically test available papers and printers to see what best fits the job because paper is a highly variable material at small scales.
In addition, Mylar or other plastic media might be a better substrate for test images due to higher dimensional stability with changes to temperature and humidity. Again, testing is warranted if such things matter.