I think looking at the EXIF can help, particularly if there's something technical you want to pursue/improve in terms of exposure or camera settings. It's also hecka handier than keeping a note, exposure-by-exposure of the settings used, like we had to do back in film days. :)
And reviewing older images in general can be helpful to boost your morale when you're thinking you've hit a plateau and you're never going to get any better, because you can actually see that you did improve with a bit more distance in time.
But to improve as a photographer, it's not necessarily the settings captured in the EXIF that are going to hold the key, so much as looking at your work with a good critical eye to see not just the technical flaws, but also the artistic ones. Were your framing, timing, or gear choices flawed? What shot did you miss? Why did you miss it? What did you NOT see? What were the missed opportunities between the frames you did grab? Is that subject worth a reshoot? Why does that image feel that way? What could you have changed to get closer to what you want? What did you want?
And it may be even more important to have someone else look at your images and give you their impressions, because looking at your photos from the outside as a viewer, rather than from inside as the photographer can really give you that view of what you might have missed. :D
For me, EXIF is a very useful tool to figuring things out, particularly at the beginning when you're still struggling for technical mastery. But remember, you're also an artist as well as a technician, and EXIF is only one tool in the box to improve.