I have a BenQ SW271 monitor, which, if I understand correctly, can be hardware calibrated using my i1 DisplayPro connected to the monitor while running BenQ's Palette Master Element Calibration Software (MS Windows only). Does this hardware calibration mean that the values/changes are written to the monitor, and not to the graphics card "output"?

If so, when I reboot into Linux, I not need to calibrate anything, since it's the monitor that is calibrated and not graphics card? Or do I still need to run DisplayCal to get a proper calibrated display?

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In simplistic terms, 'calibration' consists of two parts - calibration itself and profiling. The two go together to make your final 'calibrated' output. People tend to use the terms interchangeably, perhaps as they are always done as a pair, the distinction blurs.

The actual calibration part tends to be relatively simple when done from computers. You set the display to default, then tweak brightness, contrast & perhaps individual RGB levels to reach a desired start point.
That's all the information that is held in the display. The rest is done in the computer & stored there.

This is the profiling step.
This takes values sent from the computer via the graphics card to the display, then measures the difference between the colour sent & the colour received. It repeats this process for many dozens or hundreds of colour samples. It then compensates each as an offset between input & output values, as measured by the colorimeter. It will re-check some of these calculations before presenting you with a new colour profile file to store & use, usually as an .icc file.
This profile then intercepts at OS or application level so all output arrives at the display as intended. [Different OSes seem to handle this in slightly different ways, the details of which I am not fully conversant with].

In theory, you could copy this .icc file over & install to another OS using the same hardware. In practise… I've never tried it. I'd be inclined - weighing up the overall time saved - to re-profile in each OS.

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