I am also not entirely sure what you are referring to as "the quality", but as you say you are new to photography, I suspect you might not mean any technical details, but the overall "professional" feel - the right one might have come from a issue of Vogue, the left one probably wouldn't get placed there.
I would say that the major difference is composition, followed in second place by color contrast - but not in the narrow sense of what you can change with a slider, rather a broad term which also encompasses the lighting issues addressed in other answers.
For the composition: the man on the right is more-or-less one continuous area of black, with a few accents (visible skin) plus one very bright but small point (the watch) that is positioned close to the center, but not quite. The lines in the (light) background echo his lines, and come together in the exact direction into which he is going.
Also, on the right picture, the man's appearance screams of fashion taste and being rich. He might not be rich, but as a model, he knows how to recreate the impression for the camera. The black loafers against the brown skin, and the too-open shirt are reminiscent of the nonchalance of somebody who returning form a yacht trip in the tropics. The figure is model-slim (duh) and the clothes fit perfectly and accentuate it. The only wrinkles on the suit are the ones created by his movement. That movement deserves its own mention, it is a very dynamic pose that tells a story - he is a busy man who adjusts his suit while determinedly striding towards some goal. From the still picture alone, you can tell the energy contained in his walk.
The picture on the left would have worked much better without the human, just the motorcycle :) As it is, there is not one focal point that jumps out at you, but three separate ones that pull the eye in three directions - the man, the motorcycle and that patch of motley trees in the middle-left. Even in the foreground, the man and the motorcycle are equally prominent, and both pushed to the sides of the frame. Just as in the right picture, the background is divided, with a light bottom half - but because the man is wearing light trousers, he has no chance of popping out.
The appearance of the man in the left picture is also rather normal, not head-turning like the one on the right. The clothes are everyday, the loafer on the naked foot doesn't look like a forward fashion statement for some reason - I suspect it is the combination of contrast-reducing red stripe and the less-toned appearance of the man's feet. And then there is his pose - nothing dynamic in it, he is semi-slouching, propped up on the motorcycle.
Others mentioned the lighting - I find that it works quite well on the motorcycle, picking out its 3-d shape and its metallic highlights. It doesn't work well on the man. Three-quarters of him is in a dark shade, such that you cannot see any detail on his shirt (notice that while the right man is also shadowed, you can see detail in the black suit), while on the sunny side, the light makes the shirt fabric look flat and washed-out, and accentuates the wrinkles. The trousers are wrinkled too, and not just through the pose, and there is a busy-shaped shadow coming from the motorcycle. The metal accessories don't catch any light and look flat.
And then there is the coloring. First, the colors are unusual, maybe some postprocessing? The red is reduced and unsaturated overall, with everything looking either blueish or yellowish. But besides this strange tinting, the whole picture was composed such that you have the same colors in the background and in the foreground. Thus your subjects don't get visually separated.
To your last question, about whether it is possible to achieve the quality of the right picture with a phone camera: I would say yes, especially for the definition of "quality" I am using in this post. There are stunning photos out there which are made with phones, and I remember having seen sites which showcase wonderful professional photos taken with an iPhone - and this was years ago, with phone cameras much less evolved. Many phone cameras nowadays are good enough to not be the main limiting factor for an experienced photographer.