What do the T and v stand for?
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Tv stands for "Time value". Similarly Av stands for "Aperture value".
TV stands for Time Value. This is basically to indicate that you can set the Shutter Speed manually and the aperture will set automatically depending on the other parameters you've set like the exposure and the ISO. This mode is very handy in case of bird photography, sports photography or anything where shutter speed needs to be constant.