# panorama apparent angles

I enjoy driving past an orchard or vineyard and seeing the paths open up when you are in line with the trees/vines. I have wanted to get to the edge of one and take a panorama to show that. I got a chance for a test shot, which is below. The rows line up nicely. There are not enough of them, which I suspect can be solved with a vineyard and its closer spacing. The two lines of trees at the edges appear to be at about a 90 degree angle from each other. In fact, they are the parts of the closest row to my right and left. Is there a way to make them appear as in the same line?

Here's the problem. You want to show something that is close to being on either side of you (the trees in the row closest to the road) and display that on a flat display medium (screen or print, it doesn't matter) that is in front of you sufficiently that the extreme edges of the image are not on either side of you.

Short of displaying the result on a circular medium such as an IMAX screen that wraps 180° around the viewer, so that the extreme edges of the display medium are at the same angles to the observer's eyes as the items in the scene were to the camera's lens the easiest solution is to back up significantly and use a much longer focal length. A higher camera position that points down at a greater angle might also be helpful. Of course the change in perspective will also affect the relationships of all the other rows and columns in the orchard.

If you warp the projection to straighten the line along the road, the relative sizes of the trees will no longer look natural. In fact, some of the closest trees near the left and right edge of the image will look larger on their outside half than on their inside half.

What you need it to render the panorama using a rectilinear projection. This is limited to scenes that span less than 180° but since those trees are 90° appart can do it, but will need more photos that cover the space between those trees.

With the frames you have, if you project as rectilinear, the panorama will have a ⋂ shape with trees on both sides but nothing in between. By taking extra images or at least shooting at a lower angle or from a lower position, you will capture the ground that would get projected between the trees.

• The trees are probably more than 90° apart from the camera position's perspective. If the camera is closer to the line drawn by the row of trees along the roadway than one half the distance the two nearest trees in that line are to each other, then the angle will be greater than 90°. Feb 16, 2021 at 22:54
• @MichaelC: Yes, the trees were close to 180 degrees apart because I was close to the row. As I think about it, I am not sure how you show that on a flat medium as you said. Feb 16, 2021 at 23:15
• Guess you are going to have to take a few steps back then. You have to be able to make out an angle that can be projected rectilinearly. It does not take much but even if you get then under 160, it is possible to render them in a line.
– Itai
Feb 17, 2021 at 14:19
• Thanks. I'll give that a try next time. I didn't find rectilinear in the projection options in Photoshop or Lightroom. Feb 18, 2021 at 15:45
• @RossMillikan - It's very common, maybe they call it by another name. Usually there are 3 projections that are found everywhere: spherical, cylindrical and rectilinear but it is possible that the software does not offer it when the images span more than 180°. If they truly don't have it, then you can try the free Microsoft ICE that does offer it.
– Itai
Feb 18, 2021 at 15:57