How will the image be displayed/interpreted if I publish a JPEG online with no embedded color profile?
I use GIMP 2.10 on Windows 10 Home 64-bit.
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Let me assume that you are working with RGB files, and when you say "publish" you are referring to a website.
In that case, the standard color profile is sRGB, so most modern browsers, if not all, will interpret the image as if you are embedding that color profile. They will look the same.
The little knowledge I have about Gimp is that it does not use any color profile by default or uses a built-in sRGB.
So, the colors will look the same as you are seeing them in Gimp.
But there can be the case that an image does have another color profile, so the colors might change a bit if you discard the color profile before opening the file or when saving.
In the case of CMYK files, there is no way for a browser to assume how to display them, so probably you will have an oversaturated image, depending on the browser.
Chrome and Safari assume sRGB for an image unless there is a color profile. Firefox and Internet Explorer will use the monitor's color space if there's no profile. See https://www.eizoglobal.com/library/management/web-color-management/index.html