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I have tried to increase shutter speed and changed aperture. Can this happen if the air is salty with high humidity? Otherwise, how can I adjust so this does not happen?

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    What are the exposure values you are using? I've been taking a lot of moon pics recently and have had a lot of success with the Looney 11 rule (The moon equivalent to the Sunny 16 rule)
    – Peter M
    Jan 3 at 15:31
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Atmospheric conditions have a tremendous influence on how the Moon looks in images that are shot using even the very best techniques. Any sharp temperature gradients between the surface of the Earth and the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere will negatively affect the clarity one is able to get.

That's why shooting shortly after sunset when the Moon is fairly new and between overhead and the western horizon doesn't usually yield good results: the temperature difference at the terminator between air at the ground that is already in darkness and the air above it that is still getting sunlight at a low angle causes a lot of air movement. The best time to shoot the Moon for high detail is in the wee hours of the early morning in winter, when the air is coldest and less volatile.

Compare these images. Same lens and teleconverter, same tripod, same wired shutter release cord using mirror lockup, same photographer using the same techniques. Two very similar cameras: a 7D Mark II for the recent shot and a 7D for the older one. The first was shot shortly after sunset on December 21, 2020. The others were shot in January of 2013 in the best atmospheric conditions I've ever shot under. (Expand all to 1:1 full size to see the difference.)

Moon 20201221

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Moon and Jupiter 2013

For more about how the 2013 images were produced, please see this answer to Can you photograph the milky way with a full moon out?

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  • Just out of curiosity, is the other body in the 2013 photos Jupiter?
    – Jonas
    Jan 4 at 11:19
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    Yes, as is explained at the link near the end of this answer.
    – Michael C
    Jan 4 at 15:14

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