This question is fun to explore.
Are there some certain rules?
Yes, the set of rules (in a simplistic way) are:
Some wavelengths are too short and too energetic. They will destroy any biomolecule, so no living form can survive if you receive it from the star on your solar system.
Some are too long that will pass thru the living tissue of any organ meant to perceive electromagnetic waves, like radio waves. They pass even thru walls.
Some are absorbed, scattered, or reflected in our atmosphere or the gases within it, so only some wavelengths are more suitable to be used by the organisms on this planet.
There is a chance some of our ancestors perceived some other wavelengths or not. But depending on the survival rate, we evolved as we are. Some other species worked better with bigger eyes, more sensitive to low light, some with sharper images... evolution.
The type of wavelengths we can see, we call them visible light.
Most individuals of our species have some cells that react to some wavelengths, some to its intensity, and some of a somehow narrow wavelength.
Some statistical studies have been made thru modern times determining what colors a human can see. These are translated into standards that we can use to determine things like color spaces.
Some individuals perceive more or less the colors of these spaces, and some have some form of daltonism or color blindness. For them, those colors are the natural way to see. Some can not see any color at all.
3. Perception of technology
I am pretty sure that people that watched some of the first color images were so impressed that even some poor representation of colors were not as important as the milestone itself.
So the tinted photo was more "natural" than previous black and white images.
Imagine the first movies in color, imagine a family with their first color TV back in those days.
One set of rules that drive these technologies is the economy. More accurate color reproduction costs more than a simpler one. So the normal color reproduction has less range than a specialized one.
But let's go back to the dog...
6. Our experience
Yes, probably there are no rules that state that a dog can not be yellow... except probably some evolutionary ones, (like survivability of the yellowest dogs) or physiological ones, (Like some proteins that turn dog cells into yellow ones). But our everyday experience tells us that there are no yellow dogs.
My first dog was a german shepherd, a white one. And before them, I didn't know they could be white ones. But overall we know some animals furry animals can be white, like polar bears or wolves. So even if you have not seen a white german shepherd before it is not unnatural.
We all have seen some art experiments, let's say "Andy Warhol type" of images. In our experience, those kinds of saturated images are artificial.
But probably not to a toddler. If you put a toddler to color a dog image, probably will paint it yellow, and will look natural to him.