Just saw many amazing micro(macro?) pictures like this 9x magnification of nylon stockings on the Nikon Small World website. I wonder what equipment do I need (from scratch) in order to take those pictures or videos? Use the one I linked as an example. I am hoping a camera setup rather than using microscope if possible. May list the price range so that I can see if I can afford it to become my new hobby. Thank you.
Details are described in the Nikon Microscopy University site.
Essentially, you need a microscope that includes a special lightsource designed for polarized light observations, a polarizer, special lenses with interference patterns, rotating stage to get the correct angle, and a digital camera system and extension tube.
It might not surprise you that Nikon is a significant vendor and manufacturer of microscopy solutions.
I doubt this is in many photographer's 'hobby budget'. Prices of these are not published, but used equipment on eBay are priced at $18,000+ USD.
If it is just as a hobby, you could try some workarounds. Try to play with a home made setup, 9x does not seem extreme:
if you want to use one, educational microscopes, the ones that meant for children or schools, can be kind of inexpensive.
You will need to attach to it the camera somehow, maybe with the adition of some spacer rings to be able to focus at shorter distances.
Polarized light is only an option, but if you want it, you can try with a polarized source, like the screen of your phone (probably not very powerful), or filtering any light with some polarized glass. You can use a photography filter or even sunglasses or any other polarized thing (like the inside of the old floppy disk, but will probably be too dark).
I have tried comparable setups in different applications, and even if the results are not comparable to using the real things, they were good enough to get relevant scientific data
There is an accessory called a bellows that goes between the camera body and lens and enables higher magnifications than macro lenses/extension tubes/diopter-add ons. Specific magnifications figures are determined by the focal length of the lens and the extension length used on the bellows.