First off, darktable doesn't know how your manufacturer processes it's jpegs, each camera is different and the method an important differentiator between camera's and manufacturers.
In the preferences is a section for GUI (graphical user interface) options, specifically:
Don't use embedded preview JPEG but half-size raw
Check this option to not use the embedded JPEG from the raw file but >process the raw data. This is slower. (default off).
Unless told otherwise darktable defaults to showing the small jpeg preview embedded in the RAW file by your camera which will have all the settings your camera had at the time applied to it. Once you have opened the image and edited it, the preview is updated to reflect your edits. This is most noticeable if you take an image with the camera's black and white settings on. The preview jpg is black and white but the RAW is a colour image. You're camera's own software (and any that pays for the info) will then apply the black and white settings itself. Darktable and other free open-source software doesn't have access to this information.
It is possible to use ctrl+c / ctrl+v to copy and paste full or partial history stacks from one thumbnail to another or create styles which are basically a recording of the history stack of modules that have been used on one image and saved under a preset name to use on another.
See history stack and styles.
In Junkyardsparkle's answer here a third option is described where the darktable-chart binary is used to try and creating base settings to mimic the output of camera modes. The Darktable manual page 1.1.4. darktable-chart binary describes it as
"This binary is a dedicated utility to create styles out of pairs of
images such as RAW+JPEG with in-camera processing."
Using darktable chart states:
With darktable-chart we provide a tool for extracting luminance and
color values out of images taken from color reference cards like
IT8.7/1 charts. Its main purpose is to compare a source image
(typically a largely unprocessed raw image) to a target image
(typically a JPEG image created in-camera) and produce a darktable
style that is able to convert luminance and color values of the source
image to produce the target image. This style employs the tone curve
module, the input color profile, and the color look up table module
for that purpose (see Section 188.8.131.52, “Tone curve”, Section 184.108.40.206,
“Input color profile”, and Section 220.127.116.11, “Color look up table”).
Some cameras are particularly advanced in offering various film
simulation modes of your choice. With the help of darktable-chart and
the underlying modules you can now create styles that replicate these
film simulations from within darktable.