If I view an image in Shotwell, and choose "Open in RAW Editor", make an edit, then go back to Shotwell, how do I get Shotwell to then show the edited image?
You probably can't. The RAW editors like RawTherapee are non-destructive editors. You don't edit the RAW image; instead, you apply a series of instructions to the RAW image, and the instructions are saved to a separate file.
Unless Shotwell supports every single instruction than RawTherapee supports in an identical way, and supports the RawTherapee instruction file format, there is no possible way it could show the edited image. Basically, I'm saying that this would require Shotwell to be a 100% clone of RawTherapee. It isn't.
The intention is that after you have edited the image in RawTherapee, you export it as JPEG or TIFF with all edits applied. Then, any program capable of viewing JPEG/TIFF images will show the edits.