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I have a Nikon D5600. When I use telephoto lens (70-300 mm) for bird photography, on full zoom the bird does appear clear and near, but when the actual photo is produced, the bird appears far. When seen from View Finder it appears near but why the difference comes when the actual photo is produced.

Even when using Live View, the photo which I transfer from camera to phone, does not appear full screen on phone. Whereas, the photos clicked from phone, appear full screen on phone screen. I am not understanding this.

Am I missing any specific setting?

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The issue is the aspect ratio – the relationship between the width and height.

Phone cameras will take images with approximately the same aspect ratio as a modern TV, 16:9. A dedicated camera, on the other hand, will take images at 3:2. (The main exception is Micro Four Thirds, which uses a 4:3 aspect ratio, like the old 'square' TVs from 20 years ago.)

This ratio is much narrower than the phone screen, so will have black borders at the sides when viewed on a phone.

In the following image, the red frame shows approximately what you see through the viewfinder, about 90% of the photograph that will be taken. The black bars shows the missing part of the image that would be needed to fill your phone screen.

bird

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The view finder of cameras doesn't always cover the whole picture (around 85% on entry-level cameras, 95% on yours) but I don't think this is the problem.

You are likely too focused on the bird and see it/remember it bigger than it really is. Try shooting a distant and fixed object with a fixed camera (tripod, or set on a table). Aim at subject, make a drawing of what you see in the viewfinder (or take a picture with your phone if that works), take the picture, and compare the resulting photo with your drawing.

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Maybe it's just that when you look in the view finder the bird (and little surrounding) is all you see, therefore the bird looks big.
When you print the image/look at a phone or computer screen you see the bird, the little surrounding, the phone/screen, possibly your hands and the surrounding around you.

To get the same view you would have to put the screen/phone or print closer to your eyes so that it's only the image you see.
Most likely your eyes won't be able to focus on the image that close unless it's a large print or large screen.

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