You need to differentiate the camera, on where the sensor or film resides and the optical elements. This can be either lenses or mirrors.
A mirror telescope is a good example of an open structure. This structure is only to hold the elements aligned.
But it still needs housing at the end, to make a labyrinth so no direct light enters the last element, where the sensor resides.
But the concept of a camera is, in fact, a housing itself. Remember that this comes from the "camera obscura". one dark place where only the light that you are interested in is projected in the surface.