Some time ago a new kind of camera appeared. It was much smaller than most existing cameras, and used a tiny sensor which was manifestly not capable of such good results as current cameras. It also was missing many of the technical facilities which photographers relied on with previous cameras. Many photographers were extremely rude about these new, cheap, small, limited cameras, saying they could never produce good results and were unsuitable for serious photography. No-one carrying such a camera could be taken seriously as a photographer.
That camera was the Leica.
The answer to this question depends on what you want to be able to do and what you mean by 'learning photography'.
If what you mean is that you want to learn to take pictures which have some artistic merit, and perhaps to eventually develop some kind of style of your own, then it really doesn't matter what you get: any reasonably recent phone camera is more than adequate.
Using a phone will limit what you can do and you will need to adapt to it: you won't be able to do astrophotography, or anything that needs a long telephoto, or a very wide-angle lens, or pictures in the dark, or lots of things. You won't be able to make huge prints from your photographs. But it will take reliably good pictures in reasonable light conditions of very many subjects. And no-one will notice you using it: you can be at some event making photographs and no-one will even notice you doing it. The mobile phone is the Leica of the early 21st century (unlike, for instance, Leicas): small, discrete, quick, with image quality coming behind all those features in importance.
(The only problem with mobile phones from this perspective is that if you are long-sighted they are a serious pain to use as you have to hold them at arms length. I find that annoying as I am now effectively long-sighted.)
If, on the other hand, what you mean is that you want to become very expert in the technical details of photography and / or make pictures which you can only make with very long or very wide lenses, then a phone is hopeless, and any phone is equally hopeless. This is a perfectly reasonable thing to want to do, but a phone won't help you.
- I am not trying to sneer at people interested in the technical details of photography. Indeed I am very interested in the technical details: I own more cameras than I can easily count.
- I am not trying to sneer at Leica owners: I have been a Leica owner, and still am if you count the IIIc. But of the cameras I have used, I get more comments about Leicas (and the ZM rangefinder I still use) than anything that doesn't involve a darkcloth to use. Leicas are not discrete cameras today: rather the opposite.