I'm sure manufacturers have done internal tests, but I am not aware of any public data.
As long as the sensor lasts significantly longer than other components that might fail, any reduction in the life expectancy of the sensor as a result of self cleaning would be inconsequential. For cameras that have been well-cared for (eg, not dropped or dunked in liquid), the shutter appears to be among the first components to fail.
Self cleaning usually occurs when the camera is turned on or off. Suppose the sensor were rated for 100000 cleanings. If you average about 10 shots each time you turn the camera on, after 100000 shutter actuations, the sensor would have self cleaned only 20000 times. To reach 100000 sensor cleanings, you'd have to fire the shutter 500000 times. Long before reaching any self-cleaning limit, the shutter would have been replaced multiple times.
To frequently clean the sensor would require repeatedly turning the camera on and off. I'd expect problems with the power switch long before sensor-cleaning failure. Even if sensor cleaning fails, the sensor would still be able to capture images. To reach and replace the IR-cut filter, the self-cleaning function is disabled during some IR conversions.