If I simply include a color card in the image. Will I be able to capture color information perfectly?
No. A color target recorded in monochrome does not carry the information necessary to reconstruct color information. We can think of color as being comprised of three basic parts: chroma (or hue), saturation, and lightness (or value). When you record a monochrome image, you are effectively only recording the last bit. It may be true that the samples on the card have different lightness as well, making it possible to distinguish them, but there is no chroma or saturation information.
You can see this yourself simply by taking a photograph of a colorful scene and converting to gray scale. In almost any example, you will be able to find areas of the result which are the same shade of gray but which were very different colors in the original.
Howewer what I am interested is. What is needed to colorify the images? Will the Photoshop CS6 be enough or I need NASA grade software? Is there an simple step by step tutorial?
In order to colorize an image like this, you will need to add color information from an additional source — either imagined or an educated guess. Today, the most advanced software uses machine learning to make those guesses — see this for example.
Another approach would be to actually record color information in the first place, by taking three separate images with three different color filters — green, red, and blue. You can then mix these images as "color channels", creating a full-color image. This is essentially how the first color photograph was created. Of course, this is not practical with moving subjects.