The slant edge SFR method has become the standard for measuring resolution of lenses and camera systems. It works by scanning a five degree slanted edge to calculate a line spread function. This is differentiated to produce an edge spread function which is in turn passed through a fast Fourier transform to produce an MTF curve (rough description).
EDIT - for the purpose of this question assume there is no anti-aliasing filter since that is a limit independent of the Nyquist Limit.
This article by Peter Burns (the originator) better describes the method.
See the graphs below for an example of a measurement conducted on a Nikon D7000
The measurements would seem to be limited by the Nyquist Limit of the sensor in the camera. See this discussion. But, because the edge is slanted by five degrees it is, in effect, being by super-sampled during the scan.
So my question: does this super-sampling of a five degree edge allow us to measure lens resolution beyond the Nyquist Limit of the camera sensor?
Measurements were made on this test image for the Nikon D7000 from DPReview.com.