In the spirit of "Teach a man to fish"...
I almost don't know anything about lenses and cameras and photography, I just have D800E camera and I want to buy a lens that I can shoot photos of my family in travel.
I'm genuinely curious how someone who doesn't know a thing about photography wound up with almost $2k sunk into their first camera. Photography shopping is like car shopping - the more you know about it, the more you can actually find something for your needs and not the salesperson's commission needs.
Always take recommendations with a grain of salt and do further research pairing the gear with your functional need. If you can't, it's a bad buy (unless you really just want to collect the gear)
I have "Nikon AF FX DC-NIKKOR 105mm f/2D" but its "too zoomed in" and I have to go far away to take photo, don't get me wrong, I love it and I use it inside house because its taking great indoor photos, but not that good for outdoors.
This is because it's 105mm. The scales for lenses go: super wide angle, wide angle, normal, telephoto, super telephoto. The breakpoints are, roughly, ~24mm or less, ~35mm, ~50mm, ~70mm, and ~300mm.
As you can see, your 105mm lens sits right in the "Telephoto" category. These are lenses designed to make far away objects appear closer ("zoomed in"). They take some wonderful head and shoulder portraits - but one has to have a lot of room to take a waist up or full body shot.
I want a lens that a) I can use outdoor and not having to walk far away to take a shot
See above. You need to get a lens that has a wider angle of view. From where you're at, that's a normal, wide, or super-wide lens. Keep in mind that all are built around various trade-offs and you need to determine your functional need before trying to pair it to gear.
b) Not having background blurred much, like when we are travelling and we are in front of a statue or something, the lens I have doesn't really include anything from background, they all appear blurry.
Background blur, or Bokeh, is a product of the lack of Depth of Field. DoF increases when your focus approaches infinity. This is easier to do with wide angle lenses as you don't need to stand as far away to get everyone in your frame. Aperture also affects DoF. F/2 is very open, and on a 105mm lens can produce a DoF that is mere millimeters wide. Stopping down will help - I highly recommend you research "Depth of Field" as a topic and begin to learn how aperture, focal length, and focal distance combine to create the "blur" or lack of "blur" in the background.
I know my questions are super basic stuff in photography, sorry about that. I just want to take great photos and lets say cost doesn't matter much. Just want crisp 36MP photos that includes all background details and it takes clear and bright photos outdoors.
Great Photos with a DSLR mean knowing more about photography. Sorry, this type of camera isn't aimed at beginners. The more you know, the better your shots will be.
I know my lens should have higher aperture, like f/22, but how do I know which one will be better for my camera? What else is there other than f value?
You are incorrect. Lenses are marked by their maximum, most open aperture. Your 105mm f/2 has f/2 at it's widest setting. That same lens can also stop down, or be set to: f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22. It may even get up to f/32. Your camera probably allows for the 1/2 and 1/3 stops in between these. These, by the way, are the full f/stop increments. You should learn them and learn what they mean for Depth of Field and Exposure control.
To make it clear, you don’t have to buy an ##mm f/5.6 lens to use f/5.6. You need simply buy a lens whose max is wider than what you want because you can always stop an f/1.8 or f/2 lens down to f/8 or f/11. You can't, on the other hand, open up an f/5.6 lens to f/2!
Thank you in advance
No worries, mate. Good luck in your endeavor. As Wayne said, a ~24 - ~70 will probably work for you. But like I said, take this with a grain of salt and research a bit more into how photography works so that you can make informed purchase decisions.