There's the sunny f/16 rule that says photographs on a sunny day should use f/16 with the exposure time set to reciprocal of the ISO sensitivity.
However, there's also looney f/11 rule that says photographs of the moon should use f/11 with the exposure time set to reciprocal of the ISO sensitivity. Seems about right (f/11, ISO 100, 1/100 s exposure, 250mm focal length on 1.6x crop sensor, image stabilization on):
At first, I thought photographing the moon should use significantly longer exposure time and a big aperture to collect as much light as possible, especially if done during the night.
However, when you think about it, the moon is actually lit by the sun! Thus, the sunny f/16 rule should apply also to photographing the moon.
However, it doesn't. The f/11 collects 2.1 times as much light as f/16.
My question is, why the 2.1x difference? It can't be due to the atmosphere of the Earth, as the light coming directly from the sun and also the light being scattered by the moon travel the same amount in the Earth's atmosphere.