You can use a polarising filter on any lens. However, using a "directional" filter like a polarising filter or a graduated neutral density filter on a lens where the front element rotates when it focuses is a bit of a pain: you get the scene lined up, rotate the filter so that it's where you want it, focus... and then the filter rotates, so you have to adjust it again. Doable for static scenes like landscapes, not really workable if you're often changing your focus distance.
What does this have to do with STM lenses? Fundamentally, nothing - but it is the case that Canon's older kits lenses (the 18-55 and 55-250 non-STM lenses) had front elements which rotated when focusing, while the newer STM variants of those lenses have non-rotating front elements, so it's often noted in reviews that this is an advantage of the STM lenses over their older counterparts.