Recently some photos I've taken have had a band of circles imprinted on the pictures. Is this caused by my filter or something with the lens itself? Attached a photo for reference. It only happens sometimes.
The rings may a reflection of your lens off the back of a low-quality UV filter. You may confirm by retaking the picture without the filter. Avoid by taking pictures without the filter or by using a multi-coated filter.
From my experience this looks like a problem with the filter or with the first or the last lens in the optics. It can be possible that the coating of one of them is damaged.
I would at first try to take the image without the filter like it was recommended in the answer of xiota. To make completely sure that it is not the camera make sure that it happens only with this lens and filter.
If it is just the reflection of the filter throw it away and buy a new one. If it is on the lens and you want to save it ask the manufacturer or a specialist for help. If it is the camera you should ask a specialist but it should not be the camera if it is just happening sometimes...