Yes and no. There is some truth to it, but it only holds true for each lens/aperture/CoC combination at a singular focus distance.
The distribution of the depth of field depends on several factors, primarily focal length and focus distance.
The ratio of any given lens changes as the focus distance is changed. Most lenses approach 1:1 at the minimum focus distance. As the focus distance is increased the rear depth of field increases faster than the front depth of field. There is one focus distance at which the ratio will be 1:2, or one-third in front and two-thirds behind the point of focus.
It's only at this one point that the distribution of the depth of field is exactly a 1:2 ratio as depicted in your illustration. The rule of thumb you have cited is only approximate. For every focal length and aperture there is only one precise focus distance where the ratio between front and rear Depth of Field is exactly 1:2.
The ratio of the DoF in front of the point of focus to the DoF behind the point of focus will be different for every focus distance when using the same lens and aperture setting (assuming the other conditions are also the same: magnification/display size, viewing distance, assumptions about the viewer's vision, etc.).
At short focus distances the ratio approaches 1:1. A true macro lens that can project a virtual image on the sensor or film that is the same size as the object for which it is projecting the image achieves a 1:1 ratio. Even lenses that can not achieve macro focus will demonstrate a ratio very near to 1:1 at their minimum focus distance.
For example, using a 300mm telephoto lens with a maximum magnification of only .24X and a MFD of 59 inches the DoF calculates to 1:1 within the limits of rounding the distance to one one-hundredth of an inch. With a FF camera and a 300mm lens at f/4 the DoF will be 0.09 inches in front of the focus distance and 0.09 inches behind the focus distance with standard display and viewing conditions. In reality the near DoF will be microscopically smaller than the rear DoF. This difference is not perceptible and utterly meaningless, though. One has to increase focus distance to 133 inches before the near DoF at 0.54 inches is smaller to two significant digits than the rear DoF at 0.55 inches.
To get a 1:2 ratio we must focus the 300mm lens at f/4 to 769 feet. At that point the DoF will be distributed 192 foot in front and 384 feet behind the 769 feet point of focus (all distances rounded to the nearest foot).
With a 30mm lens at f/4 the 1:2 ratio is achieved at a focus distance of 92 inches. At the macro focus distance for a 30mm lens of 2.3622 inches the ratio is 1:1. With a focus distance of 287 inches (just short of the hyperfocal distance) the ratio is 1:61.4 with a near DoF of 141.2 inches and a far DoF of 8674.3 inches.
At longer focus distances the rear of the depth of field reaches all the way to infinity and thus the ratio between front and rear DoF approaches 1:∞. The shortest focus distance at which the rear DoF reaches infinity is called the hyperfocal distance. The near depth of field will very closely approach one half the focus distance. That is, the nearest edge of the DoF will be halfway between the camera and the focus distance.
We must also remember that hyperfocal distance, like the concept of depth of field upon which it is based, is really just an illusion, albeit a rather persistent one. Only a single distance will be at sharpest focus. What we call depth of field are the areas on either side of the sharpest focus that are blurred so insignificantly that we still see them as sharp. Please note that the hyperfocal distance will vary based upon a change to any of the factors that affect DoF: focal length, aperture, magnification/display size, viewing distance, etc. For why this is the case, please see:
Why did manufacturers stop including DOF scales on lenses?
Is there a 'rule of thumb' that I can use to estimate depth of field while shooting?
How do you determine the acceptable Circle of Confusion for a particular photo?
Find hyperfocal distance for HD (1920x1080) resolution?
Why I am getting different values for depth of field from calculators vs in-camera DoF preview?
As well as this answer to Simple quick DoF estimate method for prime lens