You can, but it will be hard. You will need to
- set up your phone somewhere stable.
- Have it take multiple exposures, each for as long as you possibly can.
- Have it take them in RAW.
- Then import them into your computer.
- Open them in photoshop and align them.
- Stack them using median stack. Adjust colors and curves accordingly.
Using this I have been able to capture the milkyway using a Galaxy S7, but your results may vary.
This is what I captured, although it was heavily compress by Instagram, plus some poor editing: