New answers tagged terminology
STF stands for "Smooth Transition Focus", and is a Sony-specific* term indicating that the lens includes an apodization filter to create smooth bokeh (out-of-focus blur) — and smooth bokeh is generally considered to be the best bokeh. So, you'd generally use it for non-studio portraiture or in other cases where that blur is an important artistic element. ...
You want a "body cap". Specifically the Nikon BF-1A or BF-1B, or a generic equivalent. http://www.nikonusa.com/en/nikon-products/product/cap-cover/bf-1b-body-cap.html
It stands for "Prontor-Compur connection": "Prontor" has its origins in the Italian word "pronto", meaning ready (and was a leaf shutter made by Alfred Gauthier). "Compur" is derived from the word "compound" (the "Compound" was a long-lived series of leaf shutters made by Friedrich Deckel).
Simply put, f3.5 - f5.6 is not the full range of apertures available for the lens, it is the largest available aperture depending on what distance the lens is set to. When the lens is set to it's widest zoom option, 18 mm, the largest available aperture is f3.5. When the lens is set to its longest zoom option, 55mm, the largest available aperture ...
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