Hot answers tagged optics
Your basic assumption about teleconverters is right. But you haven't done the math: 1/2" is 6.4mm x 4.8mm—doubled is still only 12.8mm x 9.6mm. OTOH it's not unheard-of for tiny format lenses to have image circles well larger than their specification.
In general: possibly yes. You actually adjust focus of your lens, not your camera. It can be an advantage1 to design a lens in a way that it changes its focal length slightly when focusing. This is not very important if you take still images. This is different for video of course and one reason why cinema lenses are so expensive But even if your lens is ...
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