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1

Since the speed of the sun going below horizon depends on date, I suppose you could create a table measuring exposures starting before sunset and then for example every other minute up to 30 minutes. In the table include column with angle of the sun (2, 1, 0, -1, -2...). When you would be taking the actual shot, you could lookup actual angles of the sun at ...

4

However, it costs much more than I was planning to pay. As the size of the sensor increases the cost of the lens needed to provide an equivalent picture (same field of view, or depth of field, or brightness, etc.) increases rapidly. Not only must the lens be longer in focal length to provide the same field of view, but the diameter of the entrance pupil (...

2

If you are considering a camera with P pixels, and you have a minimum after-crop megapixel count you are considering (Pmin), then the digital zoom ratio of the camera is ZD = √(P / Pmin). Just multiply this digital zoom ratio by the lens's optical zoom ratio to get the total zoom ratio. Thus for the RX100 cameras, their optical zooms are 100/28 ~= 3.6×. ...

4

Cropping and zooming are basically equivalent, so this is easily calculated. Zooming in 2× — like, focal length 36mm to 72mm — is like cutting the frame in half. Of course, that's each dimension, so you need to square it to calculate megapixels. For example, a 24mpix image might be 6000×4000, and to simulate that 2× zoom, you'd cut it in half each way, to ...

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