First, that's not a 360° panorama, but a 180° one. However, that doesn't change how this was done.
This image was made by stiching together several more narrow-angle images. This process is generally called making a panorama. Some camaras have panorama capability built in. You take a few picture in succession and the clever firmware finds the overlap areas to determine registration between adjacent pictures, does some blending to avoid brightness discontinuities, and stiches the result into one wide image. The only difference here is that that "panorama" was taken vertically instead of the usual horizontally, but the process is the same.
There is also external (to the camera) software available to create a panorama from a collection of overlapping pictures. I'm sure this has been discussed here before, so no need to duplicate it in this answer. The search term "panorama" should help finding lots about this process.