The terms push and pull come from the days of film processing, and there's more on that here and here, but essentially they refer to increasing or decreasing the chemical processing time to account for intentional or unintentional under/over-exposure of the film roll.
When it comes to digital, we're no longer bathing films in chemicals, but are adjusting the exposure compensation knob on the camera, or an exposure slider in Lightroom/Aperture/Photoshop/etc. So I'm wondering if these terms are still relevant to digital photography, and exactly how they can/should be used—they certainly seem to be used by experienced photographers, so I want to make sure I'm understanding precisely what they mean.
First, which way is which? and is there a simple mnemonic or trick to remember?
Second, can these terms be used to refer just to intentionally over/under-exposing a photo (relative to the recommended metering) for artistic effect? Or do they always refer to a two-stage process of under/over-exposing in camera, then a corresponding & opposite adjustment in post-processing?