It depends manly for the overall time your sensor collect light, and how much light it collects so even from the type of your zoom and optics. Bridge and "point and shot" camera expose sensor to light even when you are only pointing at your object. Reflex only during the exposition time.
Focus the light with big zoom over the sun can make damage in my opinion in this case there are no many possibility to damage your sensor.
Of course using UV0 filter or polarizer filter reduce the amount of light collected by the optics so they can help you to save your sensor and channels filter from excessive heat and light degradation but of course if you take a very long exposition time they are useless.