As others have pointed out, the palettes are not docked, so the picture is technically centered while it's partly not visible.
Just select the hand tool (H key) and move your image as you wish, clicking and dragging, I think it's the most practical thing to do, particularly if you don't want to change your layout. This is quite handy if you consider display quality in photoshop is pleasant and good enough to judge detail only at "even" display sizes, i.e. 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and obviously 100%, so I usually choose a medium enlargement (e.g. 25% to see most of the picture, this should apply to most cameras with an average Mp count and to most computer screens) and then move the picture around as needed.
Maybe they fixed this in some recent version of Ps, but it's better anyway to see images at these scaling settings in any software, to avoid being fooled by interpolation artifacts, even though most software does a good joob at hiding such issues.
Maybe you're looking for something different, but your question doesn't seem to imply you'd prefer one kind of approach over another.
More tips: you can nicely handle image magnification and position using the Navigator palette, which anyway I think I see in the screnshots you posted. Also, while using the hand tool, right click anywhere on the picture to set the image to fit the screen or at actual pixels (100%).