There are completely black corners in some of my photos. What can cause it?
I have a full-frame Canon 5D Mk II and had the problem with my 24-105 Canon lens recently and have experienced it with my 12-24 Sigma lens before.
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Most likely an incorrectly oriented lens hood. Lens hoods for zoom lenses are petal shaped, with cutouts which are designed to avoid shading the corners. The largest bits of the petal should be top and bottom, if the hood is rotated it could be the corners of the image are being blocked by the hood.
It could be you're using a lens designed for a smaller sensor so the image circle doesn't illuminate a large enough area, leaving dark corners. Finally there could be something lose inside the lens which is causing mechanical vignetting.
There are two factors:
You may have a lens hood that is too narrow for the lens, or a filter rim that is too thick. A polarising filter for example often has a higher ring than other filters.
The small aperture (high f-stop number) makes the lens hood or filter rim come closer to be in focus, so that it causes a black corner instead of just severe vignetting of the corners.