Nothing completely automated taht I know of, but here's what I do in this kind of situation:
Create a collection titled something like "stuff I need to sort out"
Select all of the images you need to sort out, and drag them into that collection.
You can now use all of of the tools within Lightroom to make selections - keyword or metadata lookups, date ranges, etc. So now you iterate through the collection.
Create a folder (note: folder, not collection) for one specific set of images.
Select the collection. Within the collection, sort out the images you want in that folder. I typically mark them as picks. Then select all of the picks, and drag them into the folder.
When you do that, Lightroom will physically move all of those images into that folder from wherever they were. (side note: if you want to leave the physical organization alone, then do this as collections. An image can be in as many collections as you want; it can only be in one folder, though).
After you're done moving them, select them again, go back to the big collection, and remove them from that collection. This is one reason why using the Mark option is useful, since it makes it easy to get the selection back. When you've removed them from the big collection, unmark everything and go for the next batch.
Once you do this a few times, it'll become second nature. If you start by trying to grab the easy and/or big groups you can manage, you'll quickly end up with a relatively small number of images that youc an go through even if it's one by one.
I recently went through a group of about 5000 images where I wanted to sort them out by various collections and most of the images ended up in at least two. I was able to completely process them out using this technique in about 40 minutes.